DOI: 10.3390/su16010367 ISSN: 2071-1050

A Bidirectional Grid-Friendly Charger Design for Electric Vehicle Operated under Pulse-Current Heating and Variable-Current Charging

Ningzhi Jin, Jianjun Wang, Yalun Li, Liangxi He, Xiaogang Wu, Hewu Wang, Languang Lu
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction

Low-temperature preheating, fast charging, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capabilities are important factors for the further development of electric vehicles (EVs). However, for conventional two-stage chargers, the EV charging/discharging instructions and grid instructions cannot be addressed simultaneously for specific requirements, pulse heating and variable-current charging can cause high-frequency power fluctuations at the grid side. Therefore, it is necessary to design a bidirectional grid-friendly charger for EVs operated under pulse-current heating and variable-current charging. The DC bus, which serves as the medium connecting the bidirectional DC–DC and bidirectional DC–AC, typically employs capacitors. This paper analyzes the reasons why the use of capacitors in the DC bus cannot satisfy the grid and EV requirements, and it proposes a new DC bus configuration that utilizes energy storage batteries instead of capacitors. Due to the voltage-source characteristics of the energy storage batteries, EV instructions and grid instructions can be flexibly and smoothly scheduled by using phase-shift control and adaptive virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control, respectively. In addition, the stability of the control strategy is demonstrated using small signal modeling. Finally, typical operating conditions (such as EV pulse preheating, fast charging with variable current, and grid peak shaving and valley filling) are selected for validation. The results show that in the proposed charger, the grid scheduling instructions and EV charging/discharging instructions do not interfere with each other, and different commands between EVs also do not interfere with each other under a charging pile with dual guns. Without affecting the requirements of EVs, the grid can change the proportion of energy supply based on actual scenarios and can also obtain energy from either EVs or energy storage batteries. For the novel charger, the pulse modulation time for EVs consistently achieves a steady state within 0.1 s; thus, the pulse modulation speed is as much as two times faster than that of conventional chargers with identical parameters.

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