DOI: 10.1002/adma.202302008 ISSN:

A 3D‐Printed Assemblable Bespoke Scaffold as Versatile Microcryogel Carrier for Site‐Specific Regenerative Medicine

Seunghun S. Lee, Nicole Kleger, Gisela A. Kuhn, Helen Greutert, Xiaoyu Du, Thijs Smit, André R. Studart, Stephen J. Ferguson
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science


Through the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, various approaches have been developed to fabricate patient‐specific implant designs based on computed tomography (CT) images of the patient. However, this requires intensive work and can bring significant financial burden to the healthcare system. Here, we used a digital light processing to fabricate an hive‐structured assemblable bespoke scaffold(HIVE). HIVE can be manually assembled in any shape/size with ease, so a surgeon can create a scaffold that would best fit a defect before implantation. Simultaneously, it can have site‐specific treatments by working as a carrier filled with microcryogels(MC) incorporating different biological factors in different pockets of HIVE. After characterization, we investigated possible site‐specific applications by utilizing HIVE as a versatile carrier with incorporated treatments such as growth factors(GF), bioceramic or cells. HIVE as a GF‐carrier showed a controlled release of BMP‐2/VEGF and induced osteogenesis/angiogenesis from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) / human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Furthermore, as a bioceramic‐carrier, HIVE demonstrated enhanced mineralization and osteogenesis, and as a HUVEC‐carrier, it upregulated both osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression of hMSCs. A HIVE with different combinations of MCs yielded a distinct local effect and we confirmed successful cell migration within assembled HIVE scaffolds. Finally, an in vivo rat subcutaneous implantation study demonstrated site‐specific osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

More from our Archive