Tathagata Biswas, Naresh Rajendran, Huzaifa Hassan, Hua Li, Chongbei Zhao, Nicolas Rohner

3D spheroid culturing of Astyanax mexicanus liver‐derived cell lines recapitulates distinct transcriptomic and metabolic states of in vivo tissue environment

  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

AbstractIn vitro assays are crucial tools for gaining detailed insights into various biological processes, including metabolism. Cave morphs of the river‐dwelling fish species, Astyanax mexicanus, have adapted their metabolism allowing them to thrive in the biodiversity‐deprived and nutrient‐limited environment of caves. Liver‐derived cells from the cave and river morphs of A. mexicanus have proven to be excellent in vitro resources to better understand the unique metabolism of these fish. However, the current 2D cultures have not fully captured the complex metabolic profile of the Astyanax liver. It is known that 3D culturing can modulate the transcriptomic state of cells when compared to its 2D monolayer culture. Therefore, to broaden the possibilities of the in vitro system by modeling a wider gamut of metabolic pathways, we cultured the liver‐derived Astyanax cells of both surface and cavefish into 3D spheroids. We successfully established 3D cultures at various cell seeding densities for several weeks and characterized the resultant transcriptomic and metabolic variations. We found that the 3D cultured Astyanax cells exhibit an altered transcriptomic profile and consequently represent a wider range of metabolic pathways, including cell cycle changes and antioxidant activities, associated with liver functioning as compared to its monolayer culture. Enzymatic assay measuring antioxidants in 2D culture and 3D spheroids also revealed enhanced antioxidative capacity of 3D cultured spheroids, in line with the differential gene expression data. Additionally, the spheroids also exhibited surface and cave‐specific metabolic signatures, making it a suitable system for evolutionary studies associated with cave adaptation. Notably, cavefish derived spheroids enriched for genes responding to xenobiotic stimulus, while the ones from surface enriched for immune response, both of which resonated with known physiologically adaptations associated with each morph. Taken together, the liver‐derived spheroids prove to be a promising in vitro model for widening our understanding of metabolism in A. mexicanus and of vertebrates in general.

Need a simple solution for managing your BibTeX entries? Explore CiteDrive!

  • Web-based, modern reference management
  • Collaborate and share with fellow researchers
  • Integration with Overleaf
  • Comprehensive BibTeX/BibLaTeX support
  • Save articles and websites directly from your browser
  • Search for new articles from a database of tens of millions of references
Try out CiteDrive

More from our Archive