DOI: 10.3390/photonics11010040 ISSN: 2304-6732

382 mW External-Cavity Frequency Doubling 461 nm Laser Based on Quasi-Phase Matching

Yingxin Chen, Guodong Zhao, Wei Tan, Hong Chang
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

To rapidly improve strontium optical clocks, a high-power, high-efficiency, and high-beam-quality 461 nm laser is required. In blue lasers based on periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystals, the optical absorption in the crystals can induce thermal effects, which must be considered in the design of high-efficiency external-cavity frequency doubling lasers. The interdependence between the absorption and the thermally induced quasi-phase mismatch was taken into account for the solution to the coupled wave equations. By incorporating multilayer crystal approximation, a theoretical model was developed to accurately determine the absorption of the frequency doubling laser. Based on experimental parameters, the temperature gradient in the crystal, the influence of the boundary temperature on the conversion efficiency, and the focal length of the thermal lens were simulated. Theoretical calculations were employed to optimize the parameters of the external-cavity frequency doubling experiment. In the experiment, in a bow-tie external cavity was demonstrated by pumping a 10 mm long periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a 922 nm laser, a 461 nm laser with a maximum output power of 382 mW. The conversion efficiency of the incident fundamental laser was 66.2%. The M2 factor of the frequency doubling beam was approximately 1.4.

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