DOI: 10.1093/dote/doad052.179 ISSN:


Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Jules Lin, Andrew Brandser, Ahmad Hider, Brandon Askar, Kiran Lagisetty, Elliot Wakeam, William Lynch, Mark Orringer, Andrew Chang, Rishindra Reddy
  • Gastroenterology
  • General Medicine



Frailty is considered a preoperative risk factor for complications after esophagectomy while impaired gastric conduit perfusion is associated with anastomotic leaks. Patients with impaired conduit perfusion may be candidates for gastric ischemic preconditioning, a surgical procedure performed prior to definitive esophagectomy to improve gastric conduit perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between radiographic determinants of frailty (morphomics) and gastric conduit perfusion assessed during esophagectomy.


Patients undergoing an esophagectomy with a cervical esophagogastric anastomosis (2015–2021) were included. Preoperative CT scans were processed using semiautomated algorithms (MATLAB; MathWorks, MA) to assess skeletal muscle (cross-sectional area, Martin’s criteria), subcutaneous fat (cross-sectional area, decreased when below the cut-off) and bone mineral density (decreased when below the cut-off). Indocyanine green perfusion was assessed intraoperatively (SPY Elite; Stryker, MI) and Ingress Index was calculated (standardized perfusion at the evaluated point). The morphomic index (MI), as an indicator of frailty, was determined using the number of decreased morphomic factors present (0–3). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data.


One hundred and thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 25 patients developing anastomotic leaks (18.4%). Morphomic indices (MIs) of 2 or 3 were independently associated with reduced Ingress Index (p = 0.019 and 0.004, Table). In a sub-analysis for MI, MIs of 2 or 3 were associated with higher age (p = 0.029), lower BMI (p = 0.003), and cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, and vascular disease, p = 0.017). Other patient demographic factors including age, sex, and comorbidities did not affect Ingress Index.


Higher Morphomic Index (indicating lower than normal radiographic measures) were associated with impaired gastric conduit perfusion. More patients will be needed to investigate whether increased MI also is associated with development of anastomotic leaks. These findings may be useful in risk stratification and preoperative decision making in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Patients with MI of 2 or higher should be considered for gastric ischemic preconditioning.

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