DOI: 10.1182/blood-2023-187433 ISSN: 0006-4971

131I-Apamistamab Effectively Achieved Durable Responses in Patients with R/R AML Irrespective of the Presence of Multiple High-Risk Factors

Stuart Seropian, James M. Foran, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Rajneesh Nath, Hannah Choe, Mark R. Litzow, Nebu Koshy, Patrick J. Stiff, Ben K. Tomlinson, Sunil Abhyankar, Sameem Abedin, George Chen, Zaid Al-Kadhimi, Partow Kebriaei, Mitchell Sabloff, Johnnie J. Orozco, Katarzyna Joanna Jamieson, Margarida Magalhaes-Silverman, Koen Van Besien, Michael W. Schuster, Arjun D. Law, Sebastian A. Mayer, Hillard M. Lazarus, Jennifer Spross, Kate L Li, Elaina Haeuber, Madhuri Vusirikala, Akash Nahar, Brenda M. Sandmaier, John Pagel, Sergio A. Giralt, Avinash Desai, Camille N. Abboud
  • Cell Biology
  • Hematology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry

Background :

Most older patients (pts) with relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML cannot tolerate intensive treatment and are not eligible for curative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT). 131I-apamistamab, an anti-CD45 radioimmunoconjugate, delivers high dose targeted radiation to hematopoietic cells, allowing for myeloablation and eradication of leukemic cells while sparing toxicity to healthy organs. 131I-apamistamab led induction and conditioning can thus provide these pts with access to alloHCT.


The SIERRA trial (NCT02665065) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled Phase 3 study comparing the rate of durable complete remission (dCR) lasting >6 months (mos) after complete remission with/without platelet recovery (CR/CRp) between two groups: 131I-apamistamab led induction and conditioning followed by alloHCT vs physician's choice of conventional care (CC). Pts were randomized (1:1) to CC or 131I-apamistamab with fludarabine and total body irradiation (2 Gy) followed by alloHCT. CR/CRp assessment was 28-56 days post alloHCT or 28-42 days post initiation of therapy on the CC group. Pts in the CC group not achieving leukemia-free state could crossover (CO) to 131I-apamistamab. Here we report the results of a post hoc analysis to determine if the presence of various risk factors (i.e., Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) <90, HCT Comorbidity Index >3, age >65, adverse-risk cytogenetics, venetoclax failure prior to randomization) influenced achievement of dCR in pts treated with 131I-apamistamab.


In total, 153 pts were randomized (CC, n=76; 131I-apamistamab, n=77). All pts who received the therapeutic dose of 131I-apamistamab (n=66) underwent alloHCT vs 14 (18.2%) in the CC group. Of evaluable pts, dCR rates at 6 mos were 22% in the 131I-apamistamab group vs 0% in the CC group (95% CI;12.29, 34.73; p<0.0001). A total of 19 pts (13, 131I-apamistamab group; 6, CO) achieved dCR. Table 1 shows the pt, disease, and transplant characteristics of dCR vs. non-dCR pts. Eight of the 19 pts (42.1%) had primary induction failure and the median time to randomization from diagnosis was 5.4 mos. Approximately 50% of pts (9/19) had adverse-risk cytogenetics. Over 35% (7/19) of the pts had failed prior venetoclax and the median number of prior treatments was 3 (range 1-5). A total of 10/19 (52%) pts had KPS of <90% and a comorbidity index of >3. There was no difference in the rate of dCR when stratifying by number of risk factors for a given pt (0 to 5) with 27% for pts with 0-1 risk factors, 14% for pts with 2-3 risk factors, and 11% for pts with 4-5 risk factors (p=0.251).


Pts with R/R AML who have multiple risk factors such as adverse risk cytogenetics, age >65, venetoclax failure, high comorbidity index or poor KPS are typically not considered for alloHCT due to high transplant-related mortality and post-transplant relapse rates. 131I-apamistamab was effective in achieving durable responses in R/R AML pts irrespective of the presence of multiple risk factors and successfully enabled alloHCT in such pts due to its targeted mechanism of action.

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