DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202301780 ISSN:

12.3% Efficient Low Voc Loss Pure Sulfide Kesterite Solar Cells from DMSO Solution via Cadmium Alloying

Xiangyu Pan, Xinyu Li, Yuntian Yang, Chunxu Xiang, Aoqi Xu, Hongkun Liu, Weibo Yan, Wei Huang, Hao Xin
  • General Materials Science
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Cd alloying has been theoretically proved to be an effective strategy to suppress Cu‐Zn antisite defects and related defect cluster for improving device performance of pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells. However, the potential of Cd alloying has not been fully realized by solely doping without further post heat‐treatment. Here, Cd alloying CZTS (Cu2(Zn,Cd)SnS4, CZCTS) is reported through dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution and how alloying concentration affects reaction path, grain growth, and electronic properties of the CZCTS absorbers is investigated. This study found that Cd can be incorporated into CZTS through direct phase transformation grain growth, which sufficiently suppresses band tailing. High quality CZCTS absorber films and efficient solar cells are fabricated within a wide range of alloy concentration. A champion CZCTS device with a power conversion efficiency of 12.3% is achieved at 35% Cd concentration without any post heat treatment, improved by over 70% compared to 7.0% of CZTS. This device exhibits a high VOC gain to the Shockley–Queisser (Voc/VocSQ = 59.7%), the lowest VOC deficit achieved in pure sulfide kesterite solar cells. The results demonstrate the importance of the Cd alloying strategy for mitigating band tailing and achieving high efficiency pure sulfide kesterite solar cells.

More from our Archive